View the Atomic Physics Slideshow (PDF)
View the book: Volume 1: Atomic Physics.
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View Discussions of Canonical Experiments:
View Related Papers:
Exact Classical Quantum Mechanical Solutions for Atomic Helium Which Predicts Conjugate Parameters from a Unique Solution for the First Time – R.L. Mills, Physics Essays, Vol. 21(2), (2008), 103–141.
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The Fallacy of Feynman’s Argument on the Stability of the Hydrogen Atom According to Quantum Mechanics – R.L. Mills, Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 30, No. 2, (2005), pp. 129-151.
Exact Classical Quantum Mechanical Solutions for One- Through Twenty-Electron Atoms – R.L. Mills, Physics Essays, Vol. 18, No. 3, September, (2005), pp. 321–361.
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Classical Quantum Mechanics – R. Mills, Physics Essays, Vol. 16, No. 4, December (2003), pp. 433-498.
Physical Solutions of the Nature of the Atom, Photon, and Their Interactions to Form Excited and Predicted Hydrino States – R. Mills, Physics Essays, Vol. 20, No.4, (2007) 403.
View Related Computation Files: Note: Some files may require Mathematica Viewer.
View Related Visualizations:
Electron Orbitsphere Current Pattern (Ch. 1 )
The bound electron (the electron orbitsphere) is composed of a continuous distribution of great-circle current loops. The distribution is constructed such that it results in two angular momentum vectors, giving rise to the phenomenon of electron spin. Once achieved, this distribution is unique according to Maxwell’s Equations.
This stand-alone executable allows the user to numerically calculate and render the charge distribution profile and angular momentum projections of the hydrogen atom, both unnormalized and normalized.
Modulation Functions (Ch. 1 )
below: Atomic Orbitals (AO’s) are surface charge density waves on the electron orbitsphere that spin harmonically about the z-axis. Quantum mechanics interprets these as probability-density lobes.
Excited States (Ch. 2 )
below: Excited states form larger, concentric orbitspheres with modulation functions. A radial dipole moment makes them unstable.
The Free Electron (Ch. 3 )
below: Free electrons form planar disks of moving charge in the plane perpendicular to their angular momentum axis. The angular velocity is constant, but the charge and current magnitude fall to zero at the edge of the disk.
The Photon (Ch. 4 )
below: The photon is a distribution of electric and magnetic field lines.
Classical Photon Scattering (Ch. 8 )
left: In the photon double-slit experiment, the impinging photon’s electric and magnetic fields give rise to currents at both slits (blue). The currents then reemit the photon, and the variation of intensity in the far field is due to the conservation of angular momentum of the source currents. There is no constructive or destructive interference of electromagnetic fields.
Classical Electron Scattering (Ch. 8 )
below: For an online discussion of this topic, view the Electron Double-Slit Experiment page.
left: Multi-electron atoms consist of concentric electron orbitspheres, one corresponding to each atomic orbital.