Soft X-ray Continuum Radiation from Low-Energy Pinch Discharges of Hydrogen- R. Mills, R. Booker, J. Lotoski, Y. Lu
Under a study contracted by GEN3 Partners, spectra of high current pinch discharges in pure hydrogen and helium were recorded in the EUV region at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in an attempt to reproduce experimental results published by BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) showing predicted continuum radiation due to hydrogen in the 10–30 nm region. Alternative explanations were considered to the claimed interpretation of the continuum radiation as being that emitted during transitions of H to lower-energy states (hydrinos). Continuum radiation was observed at CfA in the 10–30 nm region that matched BLP’s results. Considering the low energy of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the energy range of about 120 eV to 40 eV, reference experiments and analysis of plasma gases, cryofiltration to remove contaminants, and spectra of the electrode metal, no conventional explanation was found in the prior or present work to be plausible including contaminants, electrode metal emission, and Bremsstrahlung, ion recombination, molecular or molecular ion band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic ions reacting at the CCD and H2re-radiation at the detector chamber. Moreover, predicted selective extraordinarily high-kinetic energy H was observed by the corresponding Doppler broadening of the Balmer α line.
Time-Resolved Hydrino Continuum Transitions with Cutoffs at 22.8 nm and 10.1 nm – R. Mills, Y. Lu
Published in the European Physical Journal D, 64, (2011), pp. 65, as a highlighted article.The temporal evolution of the continuum emission supports the mechanism of H+ e- recombination to form high-density H. This transient state permits interactions amongst H’s to cause the hydrino transitions and corresponding emission.
Validation of the Observation of Soft X-ray Continuum Radiation from Low-Energy Pinch Discharges in the Presence of Molecular Hydrogen - A. Bykanov
Under a study contracted by GEN3 Partners, spectra of high current pinch discharges in pure hydrogen and helium were recorded in the EUV region at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in an attempt to reproduce experimental results published by BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) showing predicted continuum radiation due to hydrogen in the 10–30 nm region. Alternative explanations were considered to the claimed interpretation of the continuum radiation as being that emitted during transitions of H to lower-energy states (hydrinos). Continuum radiation was observed at CfA in the 10–30 nm region that matched BLP’s results. Considering the low energy of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the energy range of about 120 eV to 40 eV and reference experiments no conventional explanation was found in the prior or present work to be plausible including electrode metal emission, and Bremsstrahlung, ion recombination, molecular or molecular ion band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic ions reacting at the CCD and H2re-radiation at the detector chamber.
Substantial Doppler Broadening of Atomic-Hydrogen Lines in DC and Capacitively Coupled RF Plasmas – K. Akhtar, J.E. Scharer, R.L. Mills, 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 42, Issue 13, 135207 (12pp), doi:10.1088/0022-3727/42/13/135207.
The mechanism of extraordinary broadening of the Balmer lines of hydrogen admixed with noble gases in a dc glow discharge and a capacitively coupled rf discharge is studied over a wide range of pressure and gas compositions to test the field acceleration model (Cvetanovic et al 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 97 033302). High-resolution optical emission spectroscopy is performed parallel to the electrode axis (end-on) and perpendicular to the electrode axis (side-on) along with Langmuir probe measurements of plasma density and electron temperature for the parallel plate rf capacitive discharge case. Sharp pin-shaped tungsten dc electrodes are also used to minimize the backscattering of ions that are theorized by a field acceleration model to be heated in the sheath region. An excessively broad and symmetric (Gaussian) Balmer emission line corresponding to 20–60 eV of hydrogen atom energy is observed in Ar/H2 and He/H2 plasmas when compared with the majority species atom temperatures. Energy is transferred selectively to hydrogen atoms whereas the atoms of admixed He and Ar gases remain cold (<0.5 eV). Since there is neither a preferred ion nor atom in the field acceleration model, one should also observe enhanced temperature hydrogen and helium atoms in He/H2 discharges where the atomic mass is more comparable (4 : 1).
Power & Hydrino Characterization
Catalyst Induced Hydrino Transition (CIHT) Electrochemical Cell – R. Mills, X Yu, Y. Lu, G Chu, J. He, J. Lotoski
The nascent H2O molecule formed by an oxidation reaction of OH- at a hydrogen anode is predicted to serve as a catalyst to form H(1/4) with an energy release of 204 eV compared to the 1.48 eV required to produce H from electrolysis of H2O. CIHT cells, each comprising a Ni anode, NiO cathode, a LiOH-LiBr eutectic mixture as the electrolyte, and MgO matrix exploit Hydrino formation as a half-cell reaction to serve as a new electrical energy source. The cells were operated under intermittent H2O electrolysis to generate H at the anode and then discharged to form hydrinos wherein trace H2O vapor was supplied as entrained in an inert gas flow in otherwise closed cells. Net electrical production over the electrolysis input was measured using an Arbin BT 2000 (<0.1% error) and confirmed using a digital oscilloscope; wherein no theoretical conventional energy was possible. Materials characterizations included those that characterized any compositional change of the electrolyte by elemental analysis using ICPMS, XRF, and XRD, and SEM was performed on the anode. The electrical energies continuously output over long-duration, measured on different systems, configurations, and modes of operation were typically multiples of the electrical input that in cases exceed the input by a factor of greater than 10. Calorimetry of solid fuels that exploited the same catalyst and a similar reaction mechanism showed excess thermal energy greater than 10 times the maximum possible from any conventional reaction. The predicted molecular hydrino H2(1/4) was identified as a product of CIHT cells and solid fuels by MAS 1H NMR, ToF-SIMS, ESI-ToFMS, electron-beam excitation emission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy, FTIR, and XPS.
Solid Fuels that Form HOH Catalyst – R. Mills, J. Lotoski, W. Good, J. He
Atomic hydrogen is predicted to form fractional Rydberg energy states H(1/p) called “hydrino atoms” wherein n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4,…,1/p (p≤137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. The transition of H to a stable hydrino state H[aH/p=m+1] having a binding energy of p2×13.6 eV occurs by a nonradiative resonance energy transfer of m×27.2 eV (m is an integer) to a matched energy acceptor such as nascent H2O which has a potential energy of 81.6 eV (m = 3). The nascent H2O molecule formed by an oxidation reaction of OH- at a hydrogen anode is predicted to serve as a catalyst to form H(1/4) with an energy release of 204 eV compared to the 1.48 eV required to produce H from electrolysis of H2O. CIHT cells, each comprising a LiOH-LiBr eutectic mixture as the electrolyte exploit hydrino formation as a half-cell reaction to serve as a new electrical energy source. Net electrical production over the electrolysis input and hydrogen supplied to the anode was measured using an Arbin BT 2000. The electrical energies were continuously output over long-duration, measured on different systems, configurations, and modes of operation and were typically multiples of the electrical input that in most cases exceed the input by a factor of about 2 at about 10 mW/cm2 anode area. The power density was increased by a factor of over 10 by running a corresponding high current. The thermal energy balance of solid fuels that form the HOH catalyst by a reaction akin to those of CIHT cells were measured using both a water flow calorimeter and a Setaram DSC 131 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The DSC results confirmed water flow calorimetric (WFC) results and the former were further independently replicated at Setaram Instrumentation based in France. The thermal energy balance for solid fuels such as Co(OH)2 + CuBr2 and Cu(OH)2 + CuBr2 were up to 60 times the maximum theoretical for both types of calorimeters with supportive XRD of the WFC products. DSC and XRD were independently performed on the starting materials. The MAS1H NMR showed a predicted upfield matrix shift of a KOH-KCl hydrino getter when exposed to the gas from a reacting Cu(OH)2 + CuBr2 solid fuel in a sealed cell. Raman peak starting at 1950 cm-1 matched the free space rotational energy of H2(1/4) (0.2414 eV). The solid fuels scaled linearly to over 5 kW and confirm the energetic reaction of hydrinos and may serve as a thermally reversible system to continuously generate power for commercial uses.
CIHT Validation Reports
BlackLight’s electrochemical breakthrough energy device that has water (H2O) as its only fuel input from which it produces electricity by forming a more stable state of the hydrogen atom has been validated by academic and industry experts. The findings from six programs are presented in validation reports of our CIHT electricity-producing cell. The validators confirmed the CIHT performance and commercial opportunity wherein only H2O is consumed to form Hydrinos and O2 as electric power is produced continuously for the 30-day or longer duration of the studies. Validators also confirmed the theory and Hydrino identification. Attached are summary biographies for the validators and reports from:
-A California Institute of Technology professor that advises brand name institutional investment firms on technology and business opportunities [resume/report];
-An industry expert, Massachusetts Institute of Technology PhD in chemical engineering, that managed R&D for brand name companies including battery and fuel cell product development [resume/report];
-A team from a Fortune 500 firm consisting of an expert R&D manager, a PhD physics US DOD advisor, and a PhD chemist with fuel cell expertise [resume/report];
-A Professor with expertise in materials science that collaborates with world renowned battery and materials science groups [resume/report];
-A top-5 Engineering School Professor, California Institute of Technology PhD [resume/report], and
-Defense company with 25 research electrochemists that manufactures missile batteries for the defense departments [resume/report].
Design for a BlackLight Power Multi-Cell Thermally Coupled Reactor Based on Hydrogen Catalyst Systems - Mills, G. Zhao, W. Good, M. Nansteel, International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 36 (2012) 778-788. DOI: 10.1002/er.1834.
The design and cost estimates compared to other systems of an energy Hydrino producing reactor system wherein heat from Hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both the reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously over a plurality of cells in different phases of the processes. The Hydrino reactions are maintained and regenerated in a batch mode using thermally-coupled multi-cells arranged in bundles wherein cells in the power-production phase of the cycle heat cells in the regeneration phase. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25%, the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1,380 per kW electric. The system applications for distributed power (1 to 10 MW electric) and central generation retrofit and green-field projects are projected to be very competitive relative to existing power sources and systems.
Continuous Hydrino Thermal Power System, R. Mills, G. Zhao, W. Good, Applied Energy, Vol. 88, (2011) 789-798.
The Hydrino reactions are maintained and regenerated continuously in each cell wherein heat from the power production phase of a thermally reversible cycle provides the energy for regeneration of the initial reactants from the products. Since the reactants undergo both modes simultaneously in each cell, the thermal power output from each cell is constant. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric. The specifics of a reaction system design are presented.
Toward the end of the 19th century, many physicists believed that all of the principles of physics had been discovered. The accepted principles, now called classical physics, included laws relating to Newton’s mechanics and Maxwell’s Equations. However, some difficult-to-solve and perplexing discoveries caused physicists to abandon the work of physically and mechanistically explaining the workings of nature at the atomic level. Rather they took an easier approach to mathematically systematize observations adopting the philosophy of Ernst Mach, that reality is what is perceived devoid of physical principles. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, an inequality defining the limitations of the existence of physical reality requiring that physical laws such as Maxwell’s equations, Newton’s laws, conservation of energy and angular momentum be not obeyed, replaced the exactness and determinism of classical physics. This approach has led to countless nonsensical consequences that are accepted on faith based purely on mathematics, and has ultimately proved to be a dead-end towards unification of the fundamental forces of nature providing a coherent, predictable understanding of nature. In contrast, Dr. Mills has shown that physical laws that are the foundation of our modern existence can indeed be shown to predict nature on all scales from the building blocks of matter to the scale of the universe itself.
The theory upon which BlackLight’s technology was developed is the classical laws of physics. The Company recently released the finalized Grand-Unified Theory of Classical Physics that comprehensively addresses many of the basic problems in chemistry and physics using these physical laws without using approximations or pure mathematics, devoid of physics, as is the case for the incumbent atomic theory of quantum mechanics.
The following summary slide shows with animations are available in PDF format. These are large files which may take a while to load.
GUT-CP model of the electron and the photon, used to solve atoms and their states and the subsequent closed-form solutions of the fundamental experiments of atomic physics.
The solution of the 26 parameters of hydrogen molecular ions and molecules from two basic equations, one to calculate geometric parameters and the other to calculate energies, and the extension of these results to solve the majority of the important functional groups of chemistry that serve as building blocks to give the exact solutions of the majority of possible molecules and compositions of matter.
Collective Phenomena, High Energy Physics & Cosmology
Collective phenomena such as statistical thermodynamics and superconductivity; nuclear physics; cosmological implications such as absolute space; the origin of gravity, particle masses, and large scale dynamics of the universe; and wave-particle duality.
Total Bond Energies of Exact Classical Solutions of Molecules Generated by Millsian 1.0 Compared to Those Computed Using Modern 3-21G and 6-31G* Basis Sets – R. Mills, B. Holverstott, W. Good, N. Hogle, A. Makwana, Physics Essays, Vol. 23, No. 1, (2010), pp. 153-199.
The energies of exact classical solutions of molecules generated by Millsian 1.0 and those from a modern quantum mechanics-based program, Spartan’s pre-computed database using 3-21G and 6-31G* basis sets at the Hartree-Fock level of theory, were compared to experimental values. The Millsian results were consistently within an average relative deviation of about 0.1% of the experimentally values. In contrast, the 3-21G and 6-31G* results deviated over a wide range of relative error, typically being >30-150% with a large percentage of catastrophic failures, depending on functional group type and basis set.
Millsian 2.0: A Molecular Modeling Software for Structures, Charge Distributions and Energetics of Biomolecules, W. Xie, R.L. Mills, W. Good, A. Makwana, B. Holverstott, N. Hogle, Physics Essays, 24 (2011) pp. 200-212.
In this molecular modeling paper, we provide the methods and algorithms that utilize Mills classical physics atomic and molecular solutions in the molecular modeling software package called Millsian 2.0 designed for modeling the 3D structures, charge distribution, and energetics of biomolecules of pharmaceutical interest. The implementation of Millsian 2.0 was extensively tested against the available experimental data with remarkable agreement between Millsian predictions and experiments.
OH Radical, P. Payne
This report discusses the experimental validity and theoretical foundations for a new model of chemical bonding that Dr. Randell Mills has presented in his monograph, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics, hereafter referenced as GUTCP. The first of two goals is the comparison of calculated molecular properties with publicly available experimental data. The second is to describe the new concepts of chemical bonding in language that will be broadly intelligible to the computational chemistry community. The hydroxyl radical, which is formed by reaction of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, is one of the simplest examples of chemical bonding between unlike atoms. Formation of this radical also entails recoupling of both spin and orbital angular momentum for the oxygen electrons. So although it is a simple example, the system is complex enough to test diverse components of the GUTCP model for molecular electronic structure. The work discussed in this report confirms that the GUTCP correctly calculates the experimental dissociation energy of the hydroxyl radical at 0 degrees Kelvin.