Summary of recent experimental results and overview of BlackLight Technology with updated animations.
BlackLight Power Publications
Recent papers available in PDF Format.
EUV radiation in the 10-30 nm region observed only arising from very low energy pulsed pinch gas discharges comprising some hydrogen first at BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) and reproduced at the Harvard Center for Astrophysics (CfA) was determined to be due to the transition of H to the lower-energy hydrogen or hydrino state H(1/4) whose emission matches that observed wherein alternative sources were eliminated. The identity of the catalyst that accepts from the H cause the H to H(1/4) transition was investigated by recording the EUV continuum emission from electrodes having metal oxides that are thermodynamically favorable to undergo H reduction to form HOH catalyst; whereas, those that are unfavorable did not show any continuum even though the low-melting point metals tested are very favorable to forming metal ion plasmas with strong short-wavelength continua in more powerful plasma sources. Of the two possible catalysts, 3H and HOH, the latter catalyst is more likely to be active in the H pinch plasma based on the behavior with oxide-coated electrodes and the consideration of the intensity profile of the multi-body reaction required during 3 H catalysis. The HOH catalyst was further shown to give EUV radiation of the same nature by igniting a solid fuel source comprising a source of H and HOH catalyst by passing a low-voltage, high current through the fuel to produce explosive plasma. No chemical reaction can release such high-energy light, and the field corresponded to a voltage that was less than 15 V for the initially super-atmospheric collisional plasma. No high field existed to form highly ionized ions that could give radiation in this region. This plasma source serves as strong evidence for the existence of the transition of H to hydrino H(1/4) by HOH as the catalyst. Moreover, catalyst was identified to be active in astronomical sources such as the Sun, stars, and interstellar medium wherein the characteristics of product hydrino match those of the dark matter of the universe.
Soft X-ray Continuum Radiation from Low-Energy Pinch Discharges – R. Mills, R. Booker, Y. Lu, J. Plasma Physics, Vol. 79 (2003) 489–507. DOI: 10.1017/S0022377812001109.
Under a study contracted by GEN3 Partners, spectra of high current pinch discharges in pure hydrogen and helium were recorded in the extreme ultraviolet radiation region at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in an attempt to reproduce experimental results published by BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) showing predicted continuum radiation due to hydrogen in the 10–30 nm region (Mills, R. L. and Lu, Y. 2010 Hydrino continuum transitions with cutoffs at 22.8 nm and 10.1 nm. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 35, 8446–8456, doi:10.1016?j.ijhydene.2010.05.098). Alternative explanations were considered to the claimed interpretation of the continuum radiation as being that emitted during transitions of H to lower-energy states (hydrinos). Continuum radiation was observed at CfA in the 10–30 nm region that matched BLP’s results. Considering the low energy of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the energy range of about 120–40 eV, reference experiments and analysis of plasma gases, cryofiltration to remove contaminants, and spectra of the electrode metal, no conventional explanation was found in the prior or present work to be plausible including contaminants, electrode metal emission, and Bremsstrahlung, ion recombination, molecular or molecular ion band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic ions reacting at the charge-coupled device and H2 re-radiation at the detector chamber. Moreover, predicted selective extraordinarily high-kinetic energy H was observed by the corresponding Doppler broadening of the Balmer α line.
Published in the European Physical Journal D, 64, (2011), pp. 65, as a highlighted article.The temporal evolution of the continuum emission supports the mechanism of H+ e- recombination to form high-density H. This transient state permits interactions amongst H’s to cause the hydrino transitions and corresponding emission.
Under a study contracted by GEN3 Partners, spectra of high current pinch discharges in pure hydrogen and helium were recorded in the EUV region at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in an attempt to reproduce experimental results published by BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) showing predicted continuum radiation due to hydrogen in the 10–30 nm region. Alternative explanations were considered to the claimed interpretation of the continuum radiation as being that emitted during transitions of H to lower-energy states (hydrinos). Continuum radiation was observed at CfA in the 10–30 nm region that matched BLP’s results. Considering the low energy of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the energy range of about 120 eV to 40 eV and reference experiments no conventional explanation was found in the prior or present work to be plausible including electrode metal emission, and Bremsstrahlung, ion recombination, molecular or molecular ion band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic ions reacting at the CCD and H2re-radiation at the detector chamber.
Substantial Doppler Broadening of Atomic-Hydrogen Lines in DC and Capacitively Coupled RF Plasmas – K. Akhtar, J.E. Scharer, R.L. Mills, 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 42, Issue 13, 135207 (12pp), doi:10.1088/0022-3727/42/13/135207.
The mechanism of extraordinary broadening of the Balmer lines of hydrogen admixed with noble gases in a dc glow discharge and a capacitively coupled rf discharge is studied over a wide range of pressure and gas compositions to test the field acceleration model (Cvetanovic et al 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 97 033302). High-resolution optical emission spectroscopy is performed parallel to the electrode axis (end-on) and perpendicular to the electrode axis (side-on) along with Langmuir probe measurements of plasma density and electron temperature for the parallel plate rf capacitive discharge case. Sharp pin-shaped tungsten dc electrodes are also used to minimize the backscattering of ions that are theorized by a field acceleration model to be heated in the sheath region. An excessively broad and symmetric (Gaussian) Balmer emission line corresponding to 20–60 eV of hydrogen atom energy is observed in Ar/H2 and He/H2 plasmas when compared with the majority species atom temperatures. Energy is transferred selectively to hydrogen atoms whereas the atoms of admixed He and Ar gases remain cold (<0.5 eV). Since there is neither a preferred ion nor atom in the field acceleration model, one should also observe enhanced temperature hydrogen and helium atoms in He/H2 discharges where the atomic mass is more comparable (4 : 1).
Direct Plasmadynamic Conversion of Plasma Thermal Power to Electricity – Robert M. Mayo, and Randell L. Mills
The generation of electrical energy using direct plasmadynamic conversion (PDC) is studied experimentally for small-scale, chemically-assisted plasmas (CA-plasma) for the first time. Glow discharge and microwave-generated plasma sources are operated at power levels on the order of a few to 50 W in the discharge case and up to 12.83 W/cm3 in the microwave case. Extracted power approaching 1/4 W has been achieved as a demonstration. It is envisioned that such a system may be readily scaled to a few hundred Watts to several tens of kilowatts output power for microdistributed commercial applications (e.g., household, automotive, light industry, and space based power). Three-quarter inch long by 0.040-in diameter cylindrical PDC electrodes have been tested in a 10–50 W direct current, glow discharge plasma device with He or Ar as the working gas at 0.3–3.0 torr. The PDC anode was magnetized in the range of 0–700 G with a 1.5-in water cooled Helmholtz electromagnet. Open circuit voltages up to 6.5 V were obtained across the PDC electrodes at 1 torr He and 350-G field. The collector voltage was shown to be a function of applied magnetic field strength B and peaking at about 300 G. A variety of resistive loads were connected across the PDC electrodes, extracting continuous electrical power up to 0.44 mW. The power/load curve peaks at 0.44 mW for a 20 kW load indicating the impedance matching condition with the plasma source. The most severe limitation to collector output performance is shown to be plasma conductivity. Collector power drops sharply with increasing neutral gas fill pressure in the glow discharge chamber at constant discharge current indicating that electron collisions with neutral gas atoms are responsible for the reduction in conductivity. Scale-up to higher power has been achieved with the use of a microwave plasma generator. A 0.75-in long by 0.094-in diameter PDC anode was magnetized to ~140 G resulting in open circuit PDC voltages in excess of 11.5 V for He plasmas at ~0.75–1 torr and 50 sccm flow. Due to higher conductivity, load matching was now obtained at ~600 kW. Langmuir probe results indicate good agreement between the conductivity change and the electron to neutral density ratio scale-up. For this source and electrode configuration, PDC power as high as ~200 mW was demonstrated in He at 0.75 torr for a microwave input power density of ~8.55 W/cm3. Considering an electron mean-free path as the scale for collector probe influence in the plasma, the peak extracted power density is ~1.61 W/cm3 , corresponding to a volumetric conversion efficiency of ~18.8%.
Direct Plasmadynamic Conversion of Plasma Thermal Power to Electricity for Microdistributed Power Applications – R. M. Mayo and R. L. Mills
A microwave plasma source with input power levels up to 12.83 W/cm3 that provides reproducible, stable plasmas with power densities on the order of those of chemically assisted (CA-) plasmas was used to characterize plasmadynamic power conversion (PDC) of plasma thermal power to electricity. PDC extracted electrical power approaching 2 W has been achieved as a demonstration. It is envisioned that such a system may be readily scaled to a few hundred Watts to several 10′s of kW output power for microdistributed commercial applications (e.g. household, automotive, light industry, and space based power). The most important consideration in collector output performance is shown to be plasma conductivity. Increasing collector surface area in contact with the plasma, plasma charge carrier density, and plasma temperature, and reducing the fill gas pressure all increase the extracted power. Peak performance is found at 0.5 Torr fill of He at 50 sccm at 8.55 W/cm3 input power where the load match is 250 Ω and peak extracted power is 1.87 W or 3.6 W/cm3 (21.8 V, 86 mA) for a volumetric conversion efficiency of 42%.
On the Potential for Direct or MHD Conversion of Power From a Novel Plasma Source to Electricity for Microdistributed Power Applications – Robert M. Mayo, Randall L. Mills, and M. Nansteel
The generation of electricity using direct electrostatic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) conversion of the plasma-particle energy of small to midsize chemically assisted microwave or glow discharge plasma (CA-plasma) power sources in the range of a few hundred Watts to several tens of kilowatts for microdistributed commercial applications (e.g., household, automotive, light industry, and space-based power) is studied for the first time. In the determination of the effect of plasma parameters on conversion efficiency, careful attention was paid to the unique plasma conditions of low-pressure, low-ionization fraction, and nonthermal ion energies that are much greater than that of the thermal ions of traditional MHD but much lower than those of a fully ionized plasma typically generated for fusion experiments. The density of plasma ions and neutrals and their cross sections for processes such as charge exchange were also considered. The most important parameters were found to be charged-particle density and energy, as well as the large inventory of neutral gas atoms and molecules. Momentum and charge exchange of plasma ions with the large background fraction of neutrals represents a limitation to conversion efficiency. Two conversion technologies were examined in some detail. We considered the possibility of converting a CA-plasma using adaptations of a member of the broad category of electromagnetic direct converters previously developed for recovery and conversion of the high energy particles lost from tandem mirror and magnetically confined plasmas, and an MHD converter previously developed for conversion of high pressure combustion gases to electricity. While it was found that both conversion techniques performed well under ideal conditions for conversion of plasma to electricity showing conversion efficiencies of >50%, the tight coupling of plasma cell and converter, size limitations, particle energy, and the substantial inventory of relatively low energy neutrals may substantially reduce the efficacy of direct electrostatic converters under these conditions. However, MHD conversion of CA-plasmas appears feasible at ~50% efficiency with a simple compact design.
Catalyst Induced Hydrino Transition (CIHT) Electrochemical Cell – R.L. Mills, X. Yu, Y. Lu, G Chu, J. He, J. Lotoski, Int. J. Energy Res., published online December 20, 2013, 25 pages; doi: 10.1002/er.3142.
The nascent H2O molecule formed by an oxidation reaction of OH- at a hydrogen anode is predicted to serve as a catalyst to form H(1/4) with an energy release of 204 eV compared to the 1.48 eV required to produce H from electrolysis of H2O. CIHT cells, each comprising a Ni anode, NiO cathode, a LiOH-LiBr eutectic mixture as the electrolyte, and MgO matrix exploit Hydrino formation as a half-cell reaction to serve as a new electrical energy source. The cells were operated under intermittent H2O electrolysis to generate H at the anode and then discharged to form hydrinos wherein trace H2O vapor was supplied as entrained in an inert gas flow in otherwise closed cells. Net electrical production over the electrolysis input was measured using an Arbin BT 2000 (<0.1% error) and confirmed using a digital oscilloscope; wherein no theoretical conventional energy was possible. Materials characterizations included those that characterized any compositional change of the electrolyte by elemental analysis using ICPMS, XRF, and XRD, and SEM was performed on the anode. The electrical energies continuously output over long-duration, measured on different systems, configurations, and modes of operation were typically multiples of the electrical input that in cases exceed the input by a factor of greater than 10. Calorimetry of solid fuels that exploited the same catalyst and a similar reaction mechanism showed excess thermal energy greater than 10 times the maximum possible from any conventional reaction. The predicted molecular hydrino H2(1/4) was identified as a product of CIHT cells and solid fuels by MAS 1HNMR, ToF-SIMS, ESI-ToFMS, electron-beam excitation emission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy, FTIR, and XPS.
High-Power-Density Catalyst Induced Hydrino Transition (CIHT) Electrochemical Cell – R. Mills , J. Lotoski, J. Kong, G Chu, J. He, J. Trevey
CIHT cells, each comprising a Mo, MoCu (50-50 at%), or MoNi (50-50 at%) hydrogen permeable membrane anode or tape cast CoCu, clad onto a hydrogen permeable Ni membrane, NiO cathode, a LiOH-LiBr eutectic mixture as the electrolyte, and MgO matrix in some cases exploit hydrino formation as a half-cell reaction to serve as a new electrical energy source. Electrical energies were continuously output over long-duration, measured on different systems, configurations, and modes of operation and were typically multiples of the electrical input that in most cases exceed the input by a factor of about 2 at about 10 mW/cm2 anode area. The power density was increased by a factor of over 10 by running a corresponding high current without sufficient H corrosion suppression due to a limited H permeation rate, but the results indicate that thinner more permeable foils should provide long-term stability with high electrical gain. The lesser kinetically favorable anode material CoCu was protected from corrosion by cladding a tape cast onto a hydrogen permeable Ni membrane to achieve comparable power densities as Mo and MoCu foils due to the large surface area of the tape cast. For the range of surface power densities of 10 to 100 mW/cm2 developed by different anodes, a stack not requiring gas or heat handling systems is feasible with dimensions of 10 um, 10 um, and 20 um for the anode, the electrolyte layer, and a porous cathode to provide H2O transport to the reaction having a volumetric power density of 2.5 and 25 kW/liter, respectively. The predicted molecular hydrino H2(1/4) was identified as a product of CIHT cells by MAS 1H NMR, electron-beam excitation emission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy.
Solid Fuels that Form HOH Catalyst – R. Mills, J. Lotoski, W. Good, J. He, submitted.
Atomic hydrogen is predicted to form fractional Rydberg energy states H(1/p) called “hydrino atoms” wherein n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4,…,1/p (p≤137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. The transition of H to a stable hydrino state H[aH/p=m+1] having a binding energy of p2×13.6 eV occurs by a nonradiative resonance energy transfer of m×27.2 eV (m is an integer) to a matched energy acceptor such as nascent H2O which has a potential energy of 81.6 eV (m = 3). The nascent H2O molecule formed by an oxidation reaction of OH- at a hydrogen anode is predicted to serve as a catalyst to form H(1/4) with an energy release of 204 eV compared to the 1.48 eV required to produce H from electrolysis of H2O. CIHT cells, each comprising a LiOH-LiBr eutectic mixture as the electrolyte exploit hydrino formation as a half-cell reaction to serve as a new electrical energy source. Net electrical production over the electrolysis input and hydrogen supplied to the anode was measured using an Arbin BT 2000. The electrical energies were continuously output over long-duration, measured on different systems, configurations, and modes of operation and were typically multiples of the electrical input that in most cases exceed the input by a factor of about 2 at about 10 mW/cm2 anode area. The power density was increased by a factor of over 10 by running a corresponding high current. The thermal energy balance of solid fuels that form the HOH catalyst by a reaction akin to those of CIHT cells were measured using both a water flow calorimeter and a Setaram DSC 131 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The DSC results confirmed water flow calorimetric (WFC) results and the former were further independently replicated at Setaram Instrumentation based in France. The thermal energy balance for solid fuels such as Co(OH)2 + CuBr2 and Cu(OH)2 + CuBr2 were up to 60 times the maximum theoretical for both types of calorimeters with supportive XRD of the WFC products. DSC and XRD were independently performed on the starting materials. The MAS1H NMR showed a predicted upfield matrix shift of a KOH-KCl hydrino getter when exposed to the gas from a reacting Cu(OH)2 + CuBr2 solid fuel in a sealed cell. Raman peak starting at 1950 cm-1 matched the free space rotational energy of H2(1/4) (0.2414 eV). The solid fuels scaled linearly to over 5 kW and confirm the energetic reaction of hydrinos and may serve as a thermally reversible system to continuously generate power for commercial uses.
CIHT Validation Reports
BlackLight’s electrochemical breakthrough energy device that has water (H2O) as its only fuel input from which it produces electricity by forming a more stable state of the hydrogen atom has been validated by academic and industry experts. The findings from six programs are presented in validation reports of our CIHT electricity-producing cell. The validators confirmed the CIHT performance and commercial opportunity wherein only H2O is consumed to form Hydrinos and O2 as electric power is produced continuously for the 30-day or longer duration of the studies. Validators also confirmed the theory and Hydrino identification. Attached are summary biographies for the validators and reports from:
Design for a BlackLight Power Multi-Cell Thermally Coupled Reactor Based on Hydrogen Catalyst Systems - R. Mills, G. Zhao, W. Good, M. Nansteel, International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 36 (2012) 778-788. DOI: 10.1002/er.1834.
The design and cost estimates compared to other systems of an energy Hydrino producing reactor system wherein heat from Hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both the reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously over a plurality of cells in different phases of the processes. The Hydrino reactions are maintained and regenerated in a batch mode using thermally-coupled multi-cells arranged in bundles wherein cells in the power-production phase of the cycle heat cells in the regeneration phase. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25%, the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1,380 per kW electric. The system applications for distributed power (1 to 10 MW electric) and central generation retrofit and green-field projects are projected to be very competitive relative to existing power sources and systems.
Continuous Hydrino Thermal Power System, R. Mills, G. Zhao, W. Good, Applied Energy, Vol. 88, (2011) 789-798.
The Hydrino reactions are maintained and regenerated continuously in each cell wherein heat from the power production phase of a thermally reversible cycle provides the energy for regeneration of the initial reactants from the products. Since the reactants undergo both modes simultaneously in each cell, the thermal power output from each cell is constant. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric. The specifics of a reaction system design are presented.
Toward the end of the 19th century, many physicists believed that all of the principles of physics had been discovered. The accepted principles, now called classical physics, included laws relating to Newton’s mechanics and Maxwell’s Equations. However, some difficult-to-solve and perplexing discoveries caused physicists to abandon the work of physically and mechanistically explaining the workings of nature at the atomic level. Rather they took an easier approach to mathematically systematize observations adopting the philosophy of Ernst Mach, that reality is what is perceived devoid of physical principles. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, an inequality defining the limitations of the existence of physical reality requiring that physical laws such as Maxwell’s equations, Newton’s laws, conservation of energy and angular momentum be not obeyed, replaced the exactness and determinism of classical physics. This approach has led to countless nonsensical consequences that are accepted on faith based purely on mathematics, and has ultimately proved to be a dead-end towards unification of the fundamental forces of nature providing a coherent, predictable understanding of nature. In contrast, Dr. Mills has shown that physical laws that are the foundation of our modern existence can indeed be shown to predict nature on all scales from the building blocks of matter to the scale of the universe itself.
The theory upon which BlackLight’s technology was developed is the classical laws of physics. The Company recently released the finalized Grand-Unified Theory of Classical Physics that comprehensively addresses many of the basic problems in chemistry and physics using these physical laws without using approximations or pure mathematics, devoid of physics, as is the case for the incumbent atomic theory of quantum mechanics.
The following summary slide shows with animations are available in PDF format. These are large files which may take a while to load.
GUT-CP model of the electron and the photon, used to solve atoms and their states and the subsequent closed-form solutions of the fundamental experiments of atomic physics.
The solution of the 26 parameters of hydrogen molecular ions and molecules from two basic equations, one to calculate geometric parameters and the other to calculate energies, and the extension of these results to solve the majority of the important functional groups of chemistry that serve as building blocks to give the exact solutions of the majority of possible molecules and compositions of matter.
Collective phenomena such as statistical thermodynamics and superconductivity; nuclear physics; cosmological implications such as absolute space; the origin of gravity, particle masses, and large scale dynamics of the universe; and wave-particle duality.
Total Bond Energies of Exact Classical Solutions of Molecules Generated by Millsian 1.0 Compared to Those Computed Using Modern 3-21G and 6-31G* Basis Sets – R. Mills, B. Holverstott, W. Good, N. Hogle, A. Makwana, Physics Essays, Vol. 23, No. 1, (2010), pp. 153-199.
The energies of exact classical solutions of molecules generated by Millsian 1.0 and those from a modern quantum mechanics-based program, Spartan’s pre-computed database using 3-21G and 6-31G* basis sets at the Hartree-Fock level of theory, were compared to experimental values. The Millsian results were consistently within an average relative deviation of about 0.1% of the experimentally values. In contrast, the 3-21G and 6-31G* results deviated over a wide range of relative error, typically being >30-150% with a large percentage of catastrophic failures, depending on functional group type and basis set.
Millsian 2.0: A Molecular Modeling Software for Structures, Charge Distributions and Energetics of Biomolecules, W. Xie, R.L. Mills, W. Good, A. Makwana, B. Holverstott, N. Hogle, Physics Essays, 24 (2011) pp. 200-212.
In this molecular modeling paper, we provide the methods and algorithms that utilize Mills classical physics atomic and molecular solutions in the molecular modeling software package called Millsian 2.0 designed for modeling the 3D structures, charge distribution, and energetics of biomolecules of pharmaceutical interest. The implementation of Millsian 2.0 was extensively tested against the available experimental data with remarkable agreement between Millsian predictions and experiments.
OH Radical, P. Payne
This report discusses the experimental validity and theoretical foundations for a new model of chemical bonding that Dr. Randell Mills has presented in his monograph, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics, hereafter referenced as GUTCP. The first of two goals is the comparison of calculated molecular properties with publicly available experimental data. The second is to describe the new concepts of chemical bonding in language that will be broadly intelligible to the computational chemistry community. The hydroxyl radical, which is formed by reaction of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, is one of the simplest examples of chemical bonding between unlike atoms. Formation of this radical also entails recoupling of both spin and orbital angular momentum for the oxygen electrons. So although it is a simple example, the system is complex enough to test diverse components of the GUTCP model for molecular electronic structure. The work discussed in this report confirms that the GUTCP correctly calculates the experimental dissociation energy of the hydroxyl radical at 0 degrees Kelvin.