How does the BlackLight Process work?
The BlackLight Process converts H2O – via a catalytic reaction – directly into electrical power, oxygen and Hydrinos (a new form of atomic and molecular hydrogen, which has a lower-energy state). The energy release of Hydrinos to produce electricity is much higher (200 times) than the energy release from burning hydrogen, and therefore water can be used as the fuel to make Hydrinos – a more primary source of power for essentially all applications including motive.
A theoretical, scientific overview of the Process is posted at: http://www.blacklightpower.com/theory-2/theory-home
How does the Catalyst-Induced Hydrino Transition (CIHT) Process cell take water out of the air?
The water vapor is absorbed by the electrolyte (the ion-conducting chemicals that serve as the reactants to make Hydrinos from the water) with the release of power as electricity.
A webpage explaining how the CIHT cell works is posted at: http://www.blacklightpower.com/technology/ciht-cell/. (Note, this page includes some of the photos we have available in a zip file for emailing.)
What are the BlackLight Process by-products, if any?
The Process produces Hydrinos, a more stable form of molecular hydrogen. No by-products, including carbon dioxide or other pollutants, are formed.
Is the BlackLight Process totally renewable, i.e., does it have an impact on the water cycle?
The Process consumes water. However, burning hydrocarbons actually produces H2O. Human activities during the industrial revolution alone have released enough excess H2O into the Earth’s atmosphere to last 1,000s of years.
The Earth also is covered with H2O, in some cases a mile deep. Water is a clean, primary energy source that can provide an essentially boundless source of fuel. It’s projected that the Earth will be consumed by the Sun long before we notice any change in Earth’s inventory of H2O!
What studies/academics have verified the Process?
Validation reports and validator bios are posted at: http://www.blacklightpower.com/technology/validation-reports/
How much does the technology cost?
The projected capital cost is $100/kilowatt (kW); see BlackLight’s May 22, 2012 news release (http://www.blacklightpower.com/press/). This is 10% of the cost of other technologies, with no fuel cost and the capacity to be deployed on site with no grid or fuels infrastructure required. Additional business information is posted at: http://www.blacklightpower.com/business/business-summary/
Can you provide some examples on how CIHT Process technology could be applied?
It’s projected that a car would be able to travel 3000 miles on a liter of H2O.
- The equivalent power of a huge central generation power plant would consume a fraction of a liter of H2O per second.
- Using a CIHT cell, an average American home (using a baseload of 1.5 kW) could run on 17 liters of H2O for one year, using a CIHT cell
What patents does BlackLight hold?
To-date, BlackLight has received 62 patents including four in the U.S., and has more than 100 pending patent applications for its innovative processes, process applications, and products.
See: http://www.blacklightpower.com/business/business-summary/, for a discussion of BlackLight’s patents and proprietary technologies.
Who or what firms have invested a total of $75 million to date in BlackLight development (as referenced in the 5/22/12 news release)?
The investors are primarily institutional investors; BLP is a privately held company and the list is confidential at this time.
Haven’t some scientists criticized Dr. Mills’ work and theories?
Dr. Mills’ work has been criticized by some physicists on the basis of quantum mechanics theory, a mathematical, statistical theory about the behavior of electrons that is postulated, but cannot be tested except by interpretations of mathematical equations and adjustable parameters. The BlackLight Process shows experimentally that a bound electron can fall to energy states below what quantum theory predicts to be possible. The Process itself is based on actual, physical laws that can and have been successfully tested for more than one hundred years. Furthermore, the Process is predicted from Isaac Newton’s Laws of Physics, James Clerk Maxwell’s Equations on Electromagnetics, and Albert Einstein’s General and Special Laws of Relativity, on the basis that all of these must hold on all scales, from the subatomic to the cosmic.
Are there photos and/or graphics available that show the BlackLight/CIHT technology?
Photo and graphics files can be emailed by request. Note, some of these photos are available on the website, e.g., at: http://www.blacklightpower.com/business/business-summary/, and at: http://www.blacklightpower.com/technology/ciht-cell/ These images can be locally saved.
What is the status of this system?
A 10 W unit has been tested, and the surface power density has been significantly increased with the goal to develop a 1.5 kW unit.
Exactly what is the product itself in this case?
A 1.5 kW electric autonomous power source that uses H2O vapor as the sole fuel source with a projected capital cost of $100/kW electric and no pollution. The scale is selected to provide base-load electric power to homes as an initial application, but the units will serve as modules to be connected to provide power for larger power loads and corresponding applications as scaling is further pursued.
When will the product reach the final stages of development?
A pre-production unit is planned for the end of 2013.
Isn’t measuring low power from electrochemical cells extremely difficult?
The test cells are the size of standard small battery cells that are convenient for measurement and materials characterization. We are using multiple standard battery and fuel cell test systems on cells of power output for which the instruments are designed to measure to much higher accuracy than our tests require. The measurements are confirmed by redundant equipment including NIST standards. The energy balance is high multiples of electrical energy gain. As reported by the experts of the six validations, the electrical energy gain is irrefutable. Moreover, it cannot be attributed to ordinary chemistry.
BLP has successfully scaled and tested cells at the 10 W level and is building larger cells.
Isn’t it strange that this more stable form of hydrogen has never been detected before?
The Hydrino is identified as the product by 10 analytical techniques. It is easy to see how Hydrino would escape detection. In an exemplary case such as Raman spectroscopy, there is no known primary peak in the high-energy regions where Hydrino peaks are observed. Another example regards the observation of the emission due to transitions of hydrogen to the Hydrino state. The emission is continuum radiation in the soft X-ray region. This observation requires dense pinch plasma and a grazing EUV spectrometer. There would be no expectation of such high-energy continuum radiation in this region from hydrogen.
Indications are that Hydrino is the dark matter of the universe for which there is a plethora of data. Other astrophysical observations that match Hydrino to dark matter regard the soft X-ray continuum data that we observe from H2 in our lab.
Is the CIHT cell a cold fusion device since it uses nickel and hydrogen?
It is not possible to directly make electricity by a nuclear reaction. The CIHT cell is an electrochemical device similar to a fuel cell, except that H2O is the fuel and the energy output is extraordinary. Furthermore, the CIHT cell does not need nickel to work. Changing the electrode from nickel to molybdenum greatly increased the output, and additional metals other than nickel work as well. Moreover, solid fuels such as combinations of hydroxides and halides that do not contain any nickel and are not in metallic form produced very large amounts of thermal energy, and in both cases of the electrical and thermal reactions, the product of the power has been confirmed to be Hydrinos. Our new results add to the long-standing discredit of cold fusion, this mechanism is disproved by the lack of any evidence of a nuclear reaction.
Even though Dr. Mills is measuring the input and output electrical power to the electrodes accurately and getting net high power gain produced, isn’t the thermal input energy to hold the CIHT cell at 300ºC relative to the electrical energy gain a problem for commercialization?
As reported in the Enser validation report, when scaled, the thermal losses relative to the electrical power generated are calculated to be a few percent of the energy balance even at the present surface power densities that are about the same as or higher than those of lithium ion batteries. But, the surface power density is expected to be higher with further development as indicated in Dr. Weinberg’s validation report.
The CIHT cell has been scaled to 10 W, and a development projection with the achieved significant increase in surface power density is a 1.5 kW electric module that can be ganged accordingly to serve larger power applications.
Could Dr. Mills have accidentally produced a thermoelectric device that is producing electricity from heat?
Ni/NiO are not thermoelectric materials. These are the same electrode materials that are used in alkaline and molten carbonate fuel cells. The latter operate at much higher temperatures.
The thermopower or Seebeck coefficient, represented by S, of a material measures the magnitude of an induced thermoelectric voltage in response to a temperature difference across that material, and the entropy per charge carrier in the material. S has units of V/K, though uV/K is more common. Values in the hundreds of uV/K, regardless of sign, are typical of good thermoelectric materials.
Molten salts are highly thermally conductive and consequently are used as uniform temperature baths. The electrodes are closely spaced in a molten salt bath at 400 °C that maintains both at the same temperature. There is no temperature difference between the electrodes, and the cell voltage is 0.8 V. Whereas, a good thermoelectric device would require a temperature gradient of 8000 °C to produce 0.8 V, and the use of metals would typically require it to be 80,000 to 800,000 °C. As a comparison, the surface of the Sun is about 5000 °C.
The technical paper reports that control electrolytes do not give excess energy, and the absence of electricity is observed when H2O fuel is not supplied under identical conditions.
Moreover, Hydrinos are analytically shown as the product from the electricity producing cells by ten analytical techniques with the intensity of the spectroscopic signatures proportional to the energy gain.
What in Dr. Mills theory would lead one to expect such a low output voltage when in fact he mentions in his book that Hydrinos should allow high voltage batteries to be produced?
The theory and mechanism of operation of the CIHT are given in the CIHT paper. High voltage batteries are based on new battery chemicals in conventional-type rechargeable batteries. The unique characteristics of the new compounds comprising Hydrinos allow charging and operation at higher voltage.
Incidentally, the CIHT cell voltage is not low. It is the same as that of commercial H2 + O2 fuel cells. Specifically, the voltage per cell is the same as that of alkaline, molten carbonate, phosphoric acid, PEM (proton exchange membrane), and other H2 + O2 fuel cells. The voltage is limited by the dissociation of H2O at voltages greater than this. Consequently, the energy due to forming Hydrinos is released as excess current. Notice that the charge is for fractions of a second and the discharge is for 4s. The excess current carrying reactions are given in the CIHT paper.